Just a quick word about gatekeepers.

This was my first week in the Washington, D.C. Metro area.  So, like any good researcher on Monday I headed directly for the Library of Congress to get my reader card. After going through the process of filling out the paperwork and having the identification card made I spoke to the librarian.  When I told him that I was looking for records of slave sales in the D.C. area and possibly information on people who were enslaved in Minnesota, he sent me to the National Archives.  Once I was at the National Archives I repeated the process of filling out paperwork and having an ID card made.  Then I spoke with the research assistant about the records I was trying to find.  She could not wrap her head around the idea of slaves in Minnesota because history tells us that Minnesota was a free state.  She made the comment of “If there were slaves in Minnesota, then they were freed once they got into the state.”  Since she had not encountered this history before and was unaware that slavery was in the upper midwest her ability to help me search for records was compromised.

This was only my first attempt to find additional records for the people I was researching for my thesis but I think the help and assistance you get along the way is vital to completing your research.  However, with the people who are most informed about the available sources being uninformed about this information the ability to research can be severely compromised.





An old African proverb says, “God made man, because he liked to hear a story” (What is a Myth?). In fact, one of the most ancient storytelling devices is myth creation. Mythologies have been used to explain good, evil, human origins, weather phenomena, birth, death, and the possibilities for an after-life. Mythologies elevate a culture’s history from basic dates and places into the realm of the supernatural.  Joseph Campbell boils these various mythologies that cultures create into four functions: mystical, cosmological, sociological, and pedagogical (6-10). After the Civil War, mythologies grew out of both the winning Northern states and the defeated former Confederacy. These newly developed myths functioned as sociological tales to preserve the order for the dominant (white) class. In the south the myth of the Lost Cause sought to reclaim victory from the north and preserve the rule of white supremacy. At the same time, from the place of war victory the myth of Northern Innocence grew somewhat passively. The Northern myth grew over time, solidifying the military win and economic power of the north while not admitting any moral culpability with regard to the institution of slavery.

Many scholars have noted that the process of mythologizing the Civil War began almost at the moment the war ended. In this section I will seek to define the two myths and show how the myth creation worked against full representative history. First, the pervasive Southern myth of The Lost Cause contains three parts: naming, defending slavery, and redefining the cause of the Civil War. Second, Northern Innocence, which has been less clearly defined throughout the years, worked in two ways: 1) moral superiority for freeing the slaves; 2) denial of any responsibility for the institution of slavery.

Robert Penn Warren wrote about the myth creation in his seminal book The Legacy of the Civil War; he says, “Only at the moment when Lee handed Grant his sword was the Confederacy born; or to state matters another way, in the moment of death the Confederacy entered upon its immortality” (14-15). That is, the South as we imagine it now depends on it having lost the Civil War: in its loss the South is defined. When the Confederate troops surrendered, “the South was more conquered than convinced, it was overpowered rather than fully persuaded” (Price). The Southern people did not see an end to the war completely when Lee surrendered, merely a change in the type of combat. The war changed from one of physical fighting to one over ideas. Edward Pollard, wartime editor of the Richmond Examiner and author of the 1866 The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates, explicitly sought to shape the nation’s view of the South through the book that still gives us the name of the Southern myth: The Lost Cause (Blight 51). With this powerful and wildly popular book the Civil War became mythologized and Southerners attempted to cleanse themselves of their loss (Blight).

Secondly, the Lost Cause myth needed to find a new role for slavery in a country where it was no longer legal. The myth cemented the idea of the happy and faithful slave who had been taken care of by a kind and benevolent master, which was a popular trope prior to the war as a Southern defense of slavery (Blight 287; Janney 8). The folklore of a faithful, happy, and loyal slave gave way to an idea of “black Confederates” (Janney 210), which was enslaved people fighting for the Confederacy. Tales of these so-called black Confederates’ bravery and loyalty were told in periodicals dedicated to the Confederate veteran population. However, these depictions of enslaved people ignore the fact that in each of these scenarios they had no legal right to exercise their free will.

Third, Southerners actively re-framed the cause of the Civil War from having its foundations in the legalities of slavery to the idea of States’ Rights. This line of reasoning dictates that the Founding Fathers left the relationship between the federal government and the local state governments an open question. The Southern states were, therefore, sacrificing themselves for the greater good of the United States by testing the national laws (Blight 37). In 1961, Robert Penn Warren put it more bluntly: in the case in which “the situation is given by history, the Southerner therefore is guiltless; is in fact, an innocent victim of a cosmic conspiracy” (56). Confederate repositioning of the Civil War as fixing a Constitutional loophole placed them in company with, if not above, the country’s founders since they were the ones who had left the problem unresolved.

As the Southern or Confederate myth of the Lost Cause became the civic religion of white southerners, they were able to unify around the iconography and ideals to create a culture of continued white dominance (Blight 291). The new story of the Old South would be transmitted down through the generations by a cottage industry more concerned with image and ideology than facts and truth.

In the same manner, the Union or the northern states also developed a mythology to enshrine their history. I define this new myth as Northern Innocence, which is formed by a moral superiority for emancipation of the slaves and overlooking any of the benefits the North received from the institution of slavery. An earlier discussion of a Northern myth centers on the self-righteousness gained by emancipating the slaves. Robert Penn Warren named the first version of the myth:

The Treasury of Virtue, which is the psychological heritage left to the North by the Civil War, may not be as comic or vicious as The Great Alibi [The Lost Cause] but it is equally unlovely…the Northerner with his Treasury of Virtue, feels redeemed by history, automatically redeemed. (59)


Because in this myth the Northerner was released from any blame by history, the North was not compelled to make a public reckoning for its past.

Originally posted on Iridescence Media:

The Half Has Never Been Told is Edward E. Baptist’s second historical book published. The first of which, Creating An Old South, shares familiar topics as discussed in this book. Edward E. Baptist holds a PhD in History from the University of Pennsylvania and is currently an Associate Professor of History at Cornell University.


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Originally posted on A Woman Reading:

Originally published by the Gaston Gazette: Saturday, June 21, 2014 at 11:34 AM.

No plaques or memorials there state that he is strongly believed to be the first freed slave to have owned property in Gaston County. Nor that his home, livery stable and makeshift general store became the hub of a thriving black community known as “Freedom” in the 19th century.

Even his burial site, in a nondescript African-American cemetery along South Hawthorne Street, lacks a clearly visible gravestone.

But his family members have never forgotten his story, his importance in the community, nor the place where he was laid to rest in 1918 after he died at the ripe age of 93.

“When I was growing up as a…

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Originally posted on Black Girls YouTube :

 “…i wanted to be a new person and my rebirth was stifled not by the master but the slave.” – Nikki Giovanni.


Celebrating Juneteenth – and a letter from my great great grandfather

The United States freed its last slaves on this day June 18, 1865, 149 years ago. Officially commemorated as Juneteenth, this holiday goes unmarked and unnoticed by the majority Americans, including many African-Americans. Which begs the question: why? When TED Fellow Kyra Gaunt received a copy of a letter from her great great grandfather, a former slave who had escaped via the Underground Railroad, his handwritten words opened her eyes to how limited, fragmented and ephemeral narratives of slavery still are. A shorter version of this story appears on the ideas page of TED.com.

NOTE: I hope readers will consider that online literacy leads to emancipation for black girls and others, too.

In March 2014, I…

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Spending time in South Africa I have become familair with the classification system used to separate people under the Apartheid racial classification system. I did not know that the Jim Crow laws in the South also had variations to allow for wider forms of discrimination.

Originally posted on Abagond:

Segregated Chinese school - Bolivar County, Mississippi (1938)

Segregated Chinese school – Bolivar County, Mississippi (1938). Click to enlarge.

A guest post by commenter Jefe:

Chinese Americans in Mississippi under Jim Crow (1877-1967) were classified as “colored”. In the 1920s, when it started to affect the education of their children, they fought back. By the 1950s they were almost “white”.


Jim Crow: “separate but equal”

What being “colored” meant for them:

  • Employment: In the Mississippi Delta nearly all Chinese men became self-employed grocers to black sharecroppers, a niche whites did not want.
  • Marriage and family: Anti-miscegenation laws added “Mongolian” and “Malay” as races that could not marry whites. Meanwhile the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 made it nearly impossible to bring over wives or brides from China. Most Chinese men remained bachelors, though some married black. After 1910 “Paper Sons and Daughters” began to arrive from China, through a loophole in the Exclusion Act created by the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906.
  • Education: In the 1920s their children were kicked out of white schools and forced…

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Discovering previously unknown narratives or pierces of stories that we can construct narrative from helps provide a deeper context for the time inwhich our ancestors lived. This is just one reason why archival research is important to our understanding of both our personal and national histories.

Originally posted on Legacies of British Slave-ownership:

Guest Blog by: Abigail Bernard[1]

My ancestors were enslaved on the Mount Pleasant Estate in Carriacou, Grenada. Whilst conducting research about them, I consulted three separate on-line resources that, when connected together, were able to give me an insight into the lives of three men who worked on the same estate.

The first resource I came across was The Third Report of the Commissioner of Inquiry into the Administration of Civil and Criminal Justice in the West Indies, dated 5 October 1826.[2] This was written by Sir Fortunatus Dwarris and presented to the House of Commons. Although the main report does not mention Grenada, the appendix includes a section on the island and deals with complaints by enslaved people to Grenada’s Guardians of Slaves.

Map of Grenada

The report reveals that three enslaved men named Gregware, Antoine and Dan, of the Mount Pleasant Estate in Carriacou, stole a canoe and sailed…

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